Indian Medicine in Post Vedic Period

The Buddhist monks, besides being great social reformers were also accomplished physicians coupled with the zeal and ardour to attend to the masses and render a supporting hand to the sick and ailing members of the society. Lord Buddha was himself a great physician, possessing in-depth knowledge about medicine. The Buddhist monks when suffered from seasonal diseases were prescribed to take four types of medicines, Kalika, Yamika, Saptahika and Yavajjivika. In the Buddhist pharmacopoeia, the kalikas were the pulp of boiled rice or any other grain known as Manda, porridge or boiled rice called Oddna, sour gruel or kulmasa, meat or mamsa and cakes prepared from flour or opupa.

The Yamikas were 8 types of drinks, such as Cocapanam, prepared from cinnamon bark; Mocapdnam amde of plantain trees, i.e. Musa sapientum; Kolapanam a drink prepared from Jujube tree; Asvatthapanam a drink prepared from the fig tree; Udumburapanam, made from berries; Mrdvikapdnam, prepared from grapes and Kharjurapdnam, prepared from dates. The Saptdhikas used by the Buddhists were: taila or oil; sarpi or ghee; phanita, juice of sugarcane; madhu or honey; sarkara or dry sugar. The Yavajjivika were mulabhaisajya or root medicine; ganda bhaisyajya or tubers; patrabhaisajya or leaf medicine; puspabhaisajya or flower medicine; 5 jatus or lac like silajatu; 5 ksaras like alkalis; 5 lavanas or salts and 5 kasdyas or astringents like haritaki. Among the Mulabhaisajyas there are Vaca-Acorus Calamus; Musta-Cyperus Rotundus; Haridrd-Curcuma longs; Attvisa-Aconitum heterophyllum; Arka-Calotropis gigantea.

The Gandabhaisajyas used by the Buddhist monks were: Chandana, Chavika-Piper retro-fractum; Padmaka-Prunus Cerasoides; Devaddru-Cedrus Deodar; Guduci-Tinospora Cordifolia and Ddruharidra-Berberis Aristata.

The monks also used Patrabhaisajyas as their medicines for curing diseases. These were the leaves of Patola-Trichosanthes dioca; Vdsikd-Genddrussa vulgaris; Nimba-Azddirachta indicd; Kosataki-Luffa acutangula; and Saptaparna-alstonia scholaris.  To know more read:


Types of Indian Painting

Numerous types of Indian painting have emerged in the due course of time in different geographic locations as a result of religious and cultural impact. The paintings of India can be broadly classified under wall paintings and miniature paintings. The different types of Indian paintings fall under this two broad categories but again they can also be classified depending on their evolution, emergence and style. Almost all of the ancient paintings are engraved on the wall of temples and caves. Miniature paintings are the ones made on small canvasses of papers and clothes. This type of art mainly evolved in the medieval age narrating the royal life which is quite popular now.

The technique and medium are the two major aspects of painting. Depending on these, paintings can be further classified as Patachitra, Marble paintings, Batik, Kalamkari, Silk paintings, Velvet paintings, Palm Leaf Etchings, Glass painting in India, etc. With the border of art shrinking and the world becoming a global village huge patterns of art form are in vogue. Finally religion and culture also have immense impact on paintings. Folk paintings, Indo-Islamic art and Buddhist art are different types. Mostly the paintings on the walls of caves and temples depict many aspects of Hinduism and Buddhism.

Rajasthani Paintings 
These Paintings are miniature paintings of the finest quality, which are made both on paper and on large pieces of cloth. Different parts of the state stick to their own style, and are thus recognized as different schools of paintings. A number of famous schools of painting are Mewar, Hadoti, Marwar, Kishangarh, Alwar and Dhundhar. Rajasthani painting has clear influences of Mughal paintings though it is quite distinct in its own way.

Mughal Paintings
Paintings of the Mughal are the amalgamations of indo-Islamic style of painting which flourished in the ateliers of Mughal emperors including Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan, delineating neatly the court life of Mughal royal society. Tanjore Paintings are classical South Indian form of painting which evolved in the village of Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu state well-known for its richness and compactness of forms and vivid colours. To know more read:

Kanchkolar Kofta Curry, West Bengal Cuisine

Kanchkolar Kofta Curry is a traditional Bengali recipe. This recipe is about green (unripe) bananas, boiled, mashed and given a shape of flat disc which are fried and dipped in a creamy curry.

Unripe banana in Bengali language ‘Kanchkola’ is good for stomach and contains iron in it which is again good for all. ‘Kanchkola’ is cooked almost in every Bengali household and Kofta Curry made with this makes a very delicious recipe. This goes well with hot chapattis or plain hot rice. Koftas in general are like many other introductions to Bengali cuisine due to the influence of Mughals in the region.

Ingredients for Koftas:
·  Green Bananas – 4 to 5

  • Potatoes – 2, medium size
  • Gram Flour – 3 to 4 tbsp
  • CuminPowder – 1 tsp
  • Garam Masala Powder – 1/2 tsp
  • Saltas per taste
  • Oil -1/2 cup


Ingredients for Gravy:
·  Onions – 2, medium size

  • Garlic- 4 to 5 cloves
  • Ginger- 1 inch
  • Tomato – 1, medium size
  • Water – 2 to 3 tbsp
  • MustardOil – 1 tbsp
  • Red Chilli Powder – 2 tsp
  • TurmericPowder – 1 tsp
  • CorianderSeeds – 3 to4 tbsp
  • Dry Red Chilli – 3 to 4, whole
  • Cumin Seeds – 2 tbsp
  • FennelSeeds – 1 tbsp
  • FenugreekSeeds – 1 tsp
  • Green Cardamom- 2 to 3
  • Black Cardamom- 2
  • Cinnamon- 2 to 3 sticks
  • Salt as per taste

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Tourism in Krishnagar

Tourism in Krishnanagar covers the archaeological sites, medieval and the modern temples. Some of the pilgrimage tourism sites are Krishnanagar Palace or Kirshanagar Rajbari, Ghurni, Mayapur, Nabadwip.


Krishnanagar is a significant hub for culture and literature of medieval and modern times. The local population of the city of Krishnagar continues to engage in a vivacious culture of literary exchange. Krishnagar has a sub-urban locality called Ghurni. The dolls of Krishangar are famous not only in West Bengal, but also in other places of India.

Krishnanagar Palace or Krishnagar Rajbari 
Krishnagar Rajbari also known as the Krishnanagar Palace is most widely visited architectural wonder in this suburb city. This palace is mostly visited for the celebration of different festivals like Jhulan Mela, Holi, Baro Dol and Durga Puja. Here Durga Puja is celebrated with its own grandeur.

Religious Temples and Monasteries of Krishnagar 
The religious temples and monasteries in Krishnanagar are an integral part of the city tourism. Jalangi ghat is a popular tourist destination along with religious destinations like Mayapur, Nabadwip and Shantipur. A few other attractions include the College Bhavan and the Public Library.

Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church is located in Krishnanagar. This Catholic Church is famous for its distinctive and appealing architecture. It stands out and tourists of all races, religious and ethnicities frequent this church that explains the life and time of Jesus Christ in the inception, through European paintings and carvings in the walls. The compound also houses a protestant church.

Mayapur is also known as the spiritual capital of Indian state of West Bengal. Iskcon Temple at Mayapur for years has attracted tourists from the world over. The International Society for the Krishna Conscious is a close knit group of spiritual enthusiasts. To know more read:


Indian Paintings as an Art Form

Indian Paintings as an Art form has been practiced since the ancient times. Among the various forms of art, painting is most adored from earliest period, as painting captures the emotion and expression and retains this for a long period. Painting is the visual documentation of man’s thought and experience. In India painting was practiced from ancient time as evidence can be found in the prehistoric cave paintings of Bhimbetka. This paintings was done even before 5550 BC and spans around 600 hundred years, starting from upper Paleolithic to prehistoric and medieval times.

Early History of Indian Paintings as an Art Form
The antediluvian cave men engraved on the walls of caves with the blunt stone tools and coloured with twigs using minerals, earth and coal. They painted images of animals, scenes of hunting and also some feeble human figures. Eventually painting flourished in different regions of India in different periods of time. The paintings are segmented in two different forms- wall painting and miniature. In various times, the paintings have been illustrated on the walls of caves, temples and palaces and on clothes as Patachitra or on leaves. These paintings reveal the influence of local cerebral and cultural sensibilities as well as give cross-cultural insights.

Types of Indian Paintings as an Art Form
The vastness of India, its different geographical locations and various forms of culture gave rise to different forms of art and paintings, which are distinct from each other with their own characteristics but carry a common Indian essence. The Madhubani/Mithila painting, Pahari painting, Rajasthani painting, Warli painting from Maharastra and different South Indian styles namely Tanjore, Mysore, Lepakshi are the common examples. Also under royal patronage several styles evolved namely Mughal paintings, Rajput painting etc. Medium and technique also poses an important feature to the paintings. In India, lots of painting materials are available naturally and depending on this, various forms of painting like Batik, Kalamkari, Glass painting, Marble painting, Palm leaf etching etc have been evolved. There are also typical local forms of paintings like Phadas, Pithora, Pichwai, Worli, Thangka paintings etc. To know more read:


Bearing the Botanical names Curcuma longa Linn, Curcuma domestica Val and, Curcuma aromatica Linn and the Family name Zingiberaceae, turmeric (Curcuma longa) is defined as a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, by the latter name. In India, the plant is used in almost in umpteen and lip-smacking variations, with several names of can be stated as follows – Haldi in Hindi; Halud and Pitarus in Bengali; Haldhar, Haldi in Gujarati; Arishina in Kannada; Halad in Konkani; Manjal in Malayalam; Halad, Halede in Marathi; Yaingang in Meitei; Haladi in Oriya; Haldar, Haldhar, Haldi in Punjabi; Haladi, Haridra, Harita in Sanskrit; Manjal in Tamil; Pasupu in Telugu; Haladi in Urdu.

Turmeric is the boiled, dried, cleaned and polished rhizome version of Curcuma longa. The plant can be described as an herbaceous perennial one, 60-90 cm in height, possessing a short stem and clumped leaf. There exists 7 to 12 leaves in one sheath, the leaf sheaths forming the pseudo-stem. Approximately 30 flowers are produced in one spike. The seeds of turmeric plant are produced in capsules and there definitely is one to numerous sunken capsules in an inflorescence. Turmeric, basically serving as an underground stem, very much resembles a plant of ginger in the raw, unused version. The turmeric powderised variation is most normally available in a ground, mashed, bright yellow fine powder. The whole turmeric resembles a tuberous rhizome, with a rough, sectioned skin. The rhizome is yellowish-brown in colour, with a dull orange inside that appears bright yellow when pulverised. The main rhizome measures 2.5 – 7 cm in length with a diameter of 2.5 cm, with smaller tubers branching off. The fragrance and olfactory property of turmeric is intriguingly earthy and to some extent pungent and bitter. The flavour of both the powder and the whole version is warm and aromatic to some extent, with an acrid undertone.

Turmeric is wholly a native of India in its origin and distribution. In India, it is cultivated in the states of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Turmeric serves absolutely as a tropical crop, cultivated from sea level to 1200 metres in mean land level height. It develops best in light black, black clayey loams and red soils under thoroughly irrigated and rain-fed conditions. The crop cannot however stand water logging or alkalinity soil conditions. Turmeric is verily regarded as an ancient spice, a native of South East Asia, brilliantly utilised from time immemorial as a dye and a condiment. It is still used in rituals of the Hindu religion and as a dye for holy robes, being natural, un-synthesised and cheap. Indeed, history of turmeric bears within its portfolio much amalgamation of legends, lores and yet, pragmatic details. To know more read:

Wind Instruments, Indian Musical Instruments

Wind Instruments, referred to as Sushira Vadya in Indian musical terms, are those which use air either directly or indirectly to produce sound. In most of the wind instruments, air is made to vibrate and is the cause of tones; but in some cases, as in the harmonium, air is only a means to vibrate a reed which gives out the note. The wind instruments consist of a resonator, usually a tube, in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual modifications of the effective length of the vibrating column of air. Wind instruments fall into two basic categories- woodwind instruments and brass instruments.

History of Wind Instruments in India
The earliest wind instruments would have been made of hollow tubes readily available to man: horns, human and animal bones, and bamboo shoots. Even today trumpets of human thigh bones are used in Ladakh and contiguous areas. The buffalo horn, Seengh (Hindi, Marathi, etc.), Kombu or Kommu (Tamil, Kannada, Telugu), are common throughout India, and the metal curved trumpet still goes by the name of Seengh or Kombu, indicative of animal origins of the instrument as well as the name.

Among the ancient instruments found resembling modern-day wind instruments are the whistles shaped like birds found in the Indus Valley excavations. Also conch shells have been found, but it is difficult to say whether they were really used as musical instruments. Vedic literature has ample references to wind instrument like the Venu and the Nadi; and it is supposed that flute players offered as sacrifice in the Mahavrata ceremony. The Toonava was another flute mentioned in these scriptures; the Bakura was also a wind instrument, perhaps a Conch shell.

The Bansuri is among the most popular wind instruments in India. It is a transverse alto flute made of a single length of bamboo with six or seven open finger holes. It is an ancient instrument depicted in Buddhist paintings from around 100 AD. It is most often associated with the Lord Krishna and Radha. The North Indian Bansuri, typically about 14 inches long, was traditionally used as a soprano instrument primarily for accompaniment in lighter compositions including film music. The South Indian counterpart of the Bansuri is the Venu, used in Carnatic Music of South India. It is a keyless transverse flute made of bamboo, which comes in various sizes. To know more read: