South Indian Folk Dance

South Indian Folk Dance

India is a land of varied culture and traditions. Our country has made great contributions in different dance forms, starting from classicaltribal to folk. Folk dances are performed for every possible occasion – to celebrate the arrival of seasonschild birthweddings and festivals, which are a plenty. The South Indian folk dances are no different and they bring out the lifestyle and traditions of the people. Discussed elaborately below are the myriad South Indian folk dances from the states of KeralaKarnatakaAndhra PradeshTelangana and Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Puducherry.

Kummattikali: Performed during the festival of Onam, this South Indian folk dance called Kummattikali is a colourful mask dance. The dancers wear painted wooden masks and adorn their bodies with leaves and grass dress. The dance is performed with the musical tunes from the onavillu strings.

Arjuna Nritham: Another South Indian folk dance of Kerala which is also popularly known as Mayilpeeli Thookkam since the lower part o the costume is made with peacock feathers. Arjuna Nritham is a ritualart performed by men with a traditional lamp Nilavilakku for lighting.

Poorakkali: Primarily celebrated during the 9 days of Pooram festival in Bhagavathy temples across North Malabar of South India. The Poorakkali dancers are expected to know all the techniques and feats of Kalaripayattu, a system of physical exercise formerly famous in Kerala.

Thullal: A popular performing art South Indian folk dance, Thullalis a solo dance exposition of Kerala. There are three different types of Thullal and the classification is based upon the metre and rhythm of the songs and the costume, adornments and dance.

South Indian Folk Dance

Kurathiyattom: Traditionally executed in the Shiva temples, this South Indian folk dance of Kurathiyattom narrates the story of Kuravan and Kurathi, which are Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati in disguise.

Yakshagna: A form of folk theatre from Karnataka, Yakshagna is an exemplary ancient art relating with many of the traditions and conventions of the Sanskrit theatre or drama, particularly those of the Purvarangaand the existence of a character, vidushaka. The first Yakshagana play was in Telugu and was written in the 16th century by Peda Kempa Gaudan and was called as GangaGauri Vilasam. The renaissance period dawned upon, followed by the 17th century, which was the time when the Yakshagana form developed in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Dollu Kunitha: A major form of South Indian folk dance of KarnatakaDollu Kunitha is performed with the beating of drums and is accompanied by singing. It is one of the ritualistic dances that are popular with the kurubas of Beereshvara Sampradaya.

Bhuta Kola: Also known as Bhootha Aradhane, this South Indian folk dance called Bhuta Kolais an ancient ritual dance performed by the Tulu</b> community to worship the spirits. It is similar to the folk dance form of Theyyam. The main idea behind this folk dance is to appease the devil and protect the environment. A procession with idols of bhoothas is taken out.

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Hockey in India

Hockey in India, Indian Athletics

Hockey in India is considered to be one of the most popular games in India. India has earned lot of recognition in all over the world by showing the excellence in the game of hockey. Hockey in India started its journey years back. The British introduced hockey in India in the 19th century. After this there was no looking back. Hockey in India established itself as one of the popular outdoor colonial games.

History of Hockey in India
The first hockey club in India was established in Kolkata in the year 1885-86 and soon more clubs were established in the cities like Mumbai and Punjab. The Hockey association in Bengal, the Bengal Hockey was the first Hockey Association in India and it came into existence in the year 1908. After this, several other Hockey associations were introduced in different Indian States like Mumbai in MaharashtraBiharOdisha and Delhi.

As the game of Hockey increased its popularity in India in a rapid pace and the Indians started to show their excellence in the game, the Indian Hockey team got a chance to play in the Olympic Games in 1928. Making debut in the Olympic Games in Amsterdam, the Indian hockey team stunned the world and clinched its first Olympic gold without conceding a single goal. The all time legendary Indian Hockey player – Dhyan Chand was the star in this great victory of India. After winning Gold in the Olympic Games, 1928, the Indian Hockey team continued its dominance for the next several years. India won six straight Olympic Gold medals from 1928 to 1956 and it also won 24 consecutive matches in Olympic Games, during this period. The period is considered to be the most glorious and golden era in the entire history of Hockey in India.

Indian National Field Hockey Team

Hockey in India, Indian Athletics

Apart from the Olympic Games, the Indian Hockey team has also shown brilliant performances in several other prestigious tournaments. India has performed extraordinarily in the tournaments like Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Tournament, Champions Trophy, and World Cup etc. and earned a lot of reputation from the world of Hockey. Apart from the Indian men’s Hockey team, the Indian Women’s Hockey team has also played brilliantly in various tournaments and earned glory for the country.

With the establishment of the Indian hockey federation, hockey in India witnessed further development. India has so far produced a large number of legendary Hockey players, who have earned a lot of recognition and reputation in all over the world. The players have shown their talents in various international and regional tournaments and have won the hearts of many Hockey lovers. The players like Dhyan Chand, Adam SinclairAdrian D SouzaAjit Pal SinghArjun Halappa,Baljit Singh DhillonBir Bhadur ChettriDhanraj Pillay, K. D. Singh, Dilip Tirkey,Leslie Claudius etc, are considered as the all time best Indian Hockey players.

Women Hockey in India
Indian women’s national field hockey team is the national women’s team representing India in Field Hockey. Captain Suraj Lata Devi led the women hockey team and made a glorious history in the field of hockey. The team members of Indian women hockey team were referred to as the “Assi (Jasjeet) Jaisi Koi Nahi” or the “Golden Girls of Hockey,” after the 2004 win. India won bronze medal in the eighth Women’s Asia Cup 2013 as they defeated China 3-2 via penalty shootout in the 3rd/4th place play-off played at the National Stadium in Kuala Lumpur.

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Vibhuti Pada

Vibhuti Pada , Patanjali Yoga Sutra

Vibhuti Pada is the significant third chapter of Patanjali Yoga Sutra. This chapter speaks of the properties of yoga and the art of integration (Samyama) through concentration, meditation and profound absorption.

In Vibhuti Pada, the central theme of the Yoga Sutras is to realise the concept of samadhi. The notion is that samadhi appears when the sadhakas are able to let loose their mental machinations, samskaras (past psychic imprints), klesha (afflictive emotions), karma (programming), vasana (habitual tendencies), and similar customary impositions of conditioning and conditioned belief systems that support the citta-vrtti. It begins with the concept of dharana (concentration), which is the sixth limb of Ashtanga Yoga. Dharana, dhyana (the seventh limb), and samadhi (the eighth limb) if merged together, compose Samyama that is the dominant theme of Vibhuti Pada.

Vibhuti Pada does not reveal a false or artificial state of reality, but it reveals the true natural unadulterated state of the Yogi – devoid of artifice, falsehood, ignorance, and fantasy. In Vibhuti Pada, Patanjali first shows the sadhaka the significance of integrating the intelligence, ego and ‘I’ principle. Further, Vibhuti Pada guides the Yogi in the subtle disciplines like concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and total absorption (Samadhi). With their help, the intelligence, ego and ‘I’ principle are eventually sublimated. This may lead either to the liberation of various supernatural powers or to Self- Realization. Vibhuti Pada states that if concentration is maintained steadily, it flows into meditation.

Gradually, in this Pada, Patanjali guides the refined sadhaka in tracing the movements, order and sequence of each action and thought that arises, by retracing his steps through yogic discipline. The sadhaka coordinates his thoughts and actions so that there is no interval of time between them. He should reach a stage where there is absolute synchronicity of thought and action and the yogi is freed from the material limitations of time and space. This very condition generates extraordinary powers in the sadhaka. Patanjali describes these powers as the properties of yoga in the Vibhuti Pada. There are around 34 properties mentioned in this Pada.

Vibhuti Pada , Patanjali Yoga Sutra

Moment is subjective and movement is objective in Vibhuti Pada. Patanjali explains that the moment is the present and the present is the everlasting ‘now’; it is timeless and real. When the moment slips from attention it becomes movement and thus, movement is time. As moment rolls into movement the past and the future appears; while the moment disappears. Therefore it is important for the sadhaka to understand the significance of moment and movement in Vibhuti Pada to obtain true knowledge and intelligence. Exalted intelligence is pure and true, fresh and uncontaminated. It distinguishes, clearly and instantaneously, the difference between similar entities without analysing them according to the rank, creed, quality and place. The sadhaka’s intelligence and consciousness now rise to the higher level of the soul. All parts of the seer appear as the soul. This is kaivalya that comes when the powers, which attract the misguided, but distract the yogi’s consciousness, are renounced.

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Archaeology of India, Sources of History of India

Temples of Ajanta and Ellora, Archaeology of India, Sources of History of India

Archaeology is the scientific study relating to peoples of the past. The study also deals with the culture and their relation with the environment. Archaeology of India is essential as it helps tracking the historical evidences of the past days. The main aim of the archaeological study is to understand how humans in the past interacted with their environment, and to preserve this history for present and future learning. They include the study of the buildings, monuments and other material relics. The Department of Archaeology was set up by Lord Curzon under the Director Generalship of Dr Marshal in order to study the remains and find out about the existence.

Archaeology of India is best sources of History of India as they provide information on the famous Indus Valley civilisation of ancient India. Various Excavations conducted at different sites in the valley of the river Indus, Lothal in Gujarat, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, at Sind and Punjab confirms the continuation of the civilisation. According to records the civilization existed during 2700 BC. In addition to that the archaeological Excavations at Taxila give an idea about the Kushanas.

The main aim of the archeological department of India is to excavate, explore and to confirm the history. Moreover, the department also conserves and preserves the monuments or relics identified as important by the historians. Apart from monuments, pots, pottery, seals, skeletal remains all are inseparable parts that reconstruct history. In the year 1921-22, the archaeological excavation was carried out in Harappa, which is Pakistan at present throws light to the remains of an ancient city. Furthermore, the ruins of another ancient city of similar size and plan, Mohenjo-Daro, also in Pakistan were excavated. This existed to a period that corresponded to the other flourishing Civilizations of the Old World, the Egyptian, the Mesopotamian and the Chinese civilizations.

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