Indian Mountain Ranges

Indian Mountain Ranges, Geography of India

Indian Mountain Ranges form an important part of the topography of India affecting climate, lives, settlement and economy of the country. They are pristine, serene, unruffled and majestic. The swaying snow peaks, lofty crests and emerald meadows blessed with the lush fruit laden valleys, invite tourists, bewitching and mesmerizing them. They also have the capacity to evoke spirituality and sanctity. India begins with the dynamic area of the northern mountain terrain varying from arid mountains in the far north to the lakecountry, and then to the evergreen forests near Srinagar and Jammu.

Major Indian Mountain Ranges
The major Indian Mountain Ranges are:

1. Himalayan Mountain Range
2. Karakoram Mountain Range
3. Eastern Mountain Range
4. Satpura Mountain Range
5. Vindhya Mountain Range
6. Aravalli Mountain Range
7. Western Ghats
8. Eastern Ghats

Indian Mountain Ranges, Geography of India

Himalayan Mountain Range: The Himalayas have the distinction of being the world’s highest mountain range and world’s youngest mountains. This range of mountains separates the plains of the Indian Subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayas stretch about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) in length. Several highest peaks of the world are part of this mountain range, including Mount Everest, which is the highest mountain in the world. Kanchenjunga is the highest point in India and the second highest mountain of the Himalayas.

Karakoram Mountain Range: Karakoram Mountain Range is situated in the regions of Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan), Ladakh (India) and southern Xinjiang (China) and reaches the Wakhan Corridor (Afghanistan). This mountain range has more than 60 peaks above 22,966 ft. Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori, the second highest mountain in the world is a part of the Karakoram Mountain Range. The Pir Panjal Range is located in southern direction of Himalayas starting from Himachal Pradesh and running north-west towards Jammu and Kashmir.

Eastern Mountain Range: Also known as ‘Purvanchal Range’, it is considered as an extension of Himalayas in the north-eastern part of India. This range comprises of three parts The Patkai-Bum Hill, The Garo – Khasi – Jaintia Hills and Lushai Hill (Mizo Hills). This range covers all the north-eastern states of India which are commonly referred as Seven Sisters. Nokrek Peak is the highest peak of this region with a height of about 1,412 m (4,632 ft).


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History of Indian Spices

History of Indian Spices

History of Indian spices is recorded from the time of inception before the invasion of Arabs in the year 711 AD. The story of Indian spices is more than 7000 years old. Centuries before Greece and Rome had been discovered, sailing ships were carrying Indian spices, perfumes and textiles to Mesopotamia, Arabia and Egypt. It was the lure of these that brought many seafarers to the shores of India.

In the ancient era, the Greek merchants thronged the markets of south India, buying several expensive items including the spices. Epicurean Rome was spending a fortune on Indian spices, silks, brocades, Dhaka muslin and cloth of gold, etc. It is believed that the Parthian wars were being fought by Rome largely to keep open the trade route to India. It is also said that Indian spices and her famed products were the main lure for crusades and expeditions to the East.

With the arrival of the Muslims the scenario altered further. An assortment of spices was used in Muslim preparations and the usage of such spices was popularised throughout the nation under the Muslim rule. As a result such spices gradually became a part of the Indian cuisines. Indian spice trading underwent changes once again during the colonial rule. As far as trading is concerned the Arabian traders were quite instrumental in popularising the Indian spices in the different corners of the world. In India, Arabian traders got the rare and exotic spices of the Far East from local spice merchants. India had spent the previous two millennia spreading its culture to the Spice Islands of the east. Arabian traders were able to make a considerable amount of money supplying these spices, even with the high prices paid to the Indian middle men, not only to their countrymen back home, but to Europe as well.

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Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga

Karma Yoga is the first step in the spiritual discipline (Sadhana) which is to be adopted for Moksha. Karma yoga can serve as an aid to Jnana Yoga which secures the realization of the self. It can also serve as a direct means to self-realization since the practice of Karma Yoga in the prescribed manner includes in it the Jnana Yoga. The two are interrelated. But it is easier to practice karma yoga as it takes less effort and time to realize the goal because of the divine grace showered on the individual in response to the disinterested performance of karma.

Etymology of Karma Yoga
The term karma bears different meanings. In a general sense it means action or any activity. It also refers to the merits and demerits acquired as a result of the performance of good and bad deeds respectively. It is also understood as the observance of the prescribed religious acts and in this sense the term is used in the present context. Yoga means upaya or method to be adopted to achieve a goal. So the compound word karma yoga means a specific religious act adopted as a means or upaya for self-realization.

Religious Duties for Performing Karma Yoga
There are several religious duties laid down by the sacred texts. The Bhagavad Gita has enumerated the following as illustrative – (1) worship of God (devarchana) (2) performance of the sacrifice (yaga) in the consecrated fire (3) control of the sense organs (indriya-samyama) by arresting their outward movement towards external objects (4) control of the mind (manas-sarityama) (5) giving away the money earned in a righteous way in charity (dana) either for the worship of God or for performance of homa or to deserving persons etc. (6) observance of austerities (tapas) in the form of performance of prescribed rites such as fasting (7) visiting holy religious centres and bathing in sacred waters (punyatirtha-punyasthana-prapti) (8) recitation of the Vedas and study of the teachings of the sacred texts (svadhyaya tadartha jnanabhyasa) and (9) practice of breath control (pranayama). It is not necessary that all of these religious duties have to be observed for the purpose of karma yoga. Any one of them, depending upon the capacity and choice of an individual, adopted as a Sadhana or religious discipline can become karma yoga for self-realization. Each one of these acts is called Yajna in the Gita, thereby implying that it is to be performed with the spirit of a sacrifice (yaga) for the sole purpose of self-realization.

Karma Yoga

Requirements for Karma Yoga
There are several important requirements to be fulfilled for a successful performance of Karma Yoga by an aspirant. In the first instance, he should acquire adequate philosophic knowledge about the true nature of Jivatman and Paramatman through the study of the sacred texts under the guidance of a qualified preceptor (Guru). The need of such knowledge is obvious because without knowing the true nature of the self, one cannot strive for its realization.

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Performing Arts of Odisha

Performing Arts of Odisha, Arts in India

Performing arts of Odisha have undergone a long process of evolution and development. The term Performing Arts mainly encompasses three art forms of dancemusic and drama. Odisha has seen a lot of ups and downs, sways and evolutions over the ages which have been of main significance in the history of the nation. The wonderful art notions on the temples and monuments, the beauties of the green valleys and hills and rivers and the Performing Arts of Odisha are certainly the state’s superiority.

Different types of Performing Arts of Odisha
Odisha has a prosperous cultural and creative inheritance. Following are the different types of Performing Arts of Odisha:

Odissi Music: Odissi music is a separate structure of Indian classical music and is having all the necessary and budding features of Indian Classical form. Odisha music is charming, multi-coloured, spotted including various types. The existing musical tradition of Odisha can largely be grouped under five categories such as:

Performing Arts of Odisha, Arts in India

Tribal Music: The tribal music signifies the tribals living mostly in the hilly and jungle regions and lightly in the coastal belt of Odisha. It is interesting to note that Odisha has the third largest attention of tribes constituting about one fourth of the total population. They are allocated over 62 tribal communities.

Folk Music: Folk music is the expression of the culture and traditions of the folk communities. Of the bewildering diversity of folk music of Odisha, state may be made of Geeta, Balipuja Geeta, Kela Keluni Geeta, Dalkhai Geeta, Kendra Geeta, Jaiphula Geeta, Ghumura Geeta, Ghoda Nacha and Danda Nacha Geeta, Gopal Ugala and Osa-Parva-Geeta etc.

Light Music: Bhajan, Janan, Oriya songs based on ragas, Rangila Chaupadi etc. are grouped under Light classical music, which forms an essential part of Odissi music. Sri Geetagovinda, Anirjukta Pravadha, Divya Manusi Prabandha, Chautisa, Chhanda, Chaupadi, Champu, Malasri, Sariman, Vyanjani, Chaturang, Tribhang, Kuduka Geeta, Laxana and Swaramalika are different sub-forms, which separately represent the traditional Odissi music.

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